How To Grow Corn
There is nothing quite like freshly harvested corn on the cob. The quality of corn starts to deteriorate as soon as it is picked which makes it hard to find good corn at the supermarket. Growing corn is the best way to have the highest quality corn available for eating. You will be the star of every summer picnic if you have fresh corn on the cob to share!
Setting Corn Up For Success
Corn plants need space, sun, lots of water, and a place protected from the wind. The plants aren’t difficult to get started, however, without the proper set-up they will not thrive. Corn has shallow roots and can get dislodged quite easily by heavy winds and pesky animals. It also needs multiple plants to pollinate and has to be planted together. If there are not enough plants, they will not pollinate successfully. A good rule of thumb is to plan on having at least 15 plants and to plan on a separate 3×5 space for them, at least to start.
Types of Sweet Corn
There are three main types of sweet corn available on the market. There are dozens of varieties of each type so look for ones that are made to succeed well in your climate and growing season length. There are many varieties designed to prosper in shorter seasons. Within the types, corn can also be white, yellow, bi-color, and even red.
Standard Sweet Corn
This is the traditional corn. They are sweet without being ultra sugary and have the classic corn texture. The downsides to this type are that they diminish in quality quickly after ripening and they do not store well. Popular varieties are Silver Queen and Early Sunglow.
Supersweet Sweet Corn
This type contains up to double the amount of sugar as standard sweet corn. They are designed to be harvested and stored over longer periods of time than sweet corn. The biggest downside to this type over standard sweet corn is that the yields are generally lower. They also are less tolerant of cold and need to be planted later in the season, by about a week or two, than most standard types. Popular varieties include Sugar Pearl and Sugar Buns.
Sugar-Enhanced Sweet Corn
This type has soft, tender, kernels with a sweetness level between that of the standard type and supersweet type. It can be stored longer than standard sweet corn but not as long as supersweet corn. Popular varieties include American Dream and Honey n’ Pearl.
How To Grow Corn
Step One – Prepare The Seeds & Space
A well-draining, fertile space that gets full sun is needed. The soil pH should be between 6.0-6.8. Amend the soil with a good compost or manure before planting.
Soak the seeds in lukewarm water (approximately 20 C) for 8-10 hours before planting. Corn seeds are shriveled and the intake of water before planting increases successful germination rates. Plant the seeds directly from the soaking water so they don’t dry out.
Step Two – Plant Seeds
Because of its pollination needs, corn does best planted in blocks instead of rows. The tassels of the male and female plants need to make contact which means they need to be relatively close together. Space them 8-12 inches apart in three rows. Plants seeds 2” deep in groups of 3 seeds. The germination rate is on average 75%. Thin the seedlings as needed after they sprout.
Plant seeds after all danger of frost has passed. The soil should be at least 18 C.
Step Three – Care & Maintenance
Being a heavy feeder, growing corn needs a rich soil. Particularly important is nitrogen. When the plants are around 8” tall, apply a nitrogen fertilizer. The fertilizer should be repeated when the corn starts producing tassels.
Water deeply at least once a week. Corn needs a good amount of water and because of its shallow roots, it is vulnerable to drought. If you see any of the leaves curling, it is a sign the crop needs more water.
Step Four – Harvesting
Corn is ready when the ears are fat, have a dark green leaf coloring, and the tassels are brown. A good test is to pull the husk down slightly to expose the kernels and test one by piercing it. If a milky substance squeezes out, it is ready.
Harvesting corn is simple to do by holding the corn stalk with one hand and pulling the ear down and away from the stalk with the other hand while twisting slightly until it breaks off. Use fresh corn immediately or as soon as possible. It will keep in the fridge up to a few days, depending on type. The longer it sits, the starchier and less palatable it will become.
Growing corn by doing plantings a few weeks apart is a great way to prolong the harvest and have corn all season long instead of just for a couple weeks. You can do several plantings of the same type, or plant a few varieties. If you are planting different varieties, they need to be planted at least 250 feet apart so they do not cross-pollinate. Alternately, they can be planted so they tassel at least two weeks apart and therefore won’t intermingle with each other.
Crows, raccoons, deer, mice, and squirrels are all potential problems. Crows like the seeds and new seedlings that they can pluck out of the ground. To deter them, cover the seeds with a row cloth cover after planting and keep it there until the seedlings are 6-7 inches tall and more than a crow is willing to pull up.
To keep raccoons and deer out, put an electric fence around your corn patch. There are a lot of alternate solutions out there if the fence isn’t working. Deer and raccoons are a determined bunch and love corn as much as we all do. An electric fence will usually do the trick, though.
Try Our Varieties of Corn
Interesting in growing corn? You can find our corn seeds here.
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